Articles‎ > ‎

Personality - Belief in the Paranormal

Cultic Studies Journal, 1995, Volume 12, Number 2, pages 148-165

Personality, Belief in the Paranormal, and Involvement with Satanic Practices Among Young Adult Males: Dabblers Versus Gamers

Stuart M. Leeds, M.A.

Prospect Heights, Illinois

Abstract

This study examined the relationship between fantasy role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, and satanic practices. Anonymous questionnaires, completed by 217 adult male subjects, were categorized into noninvolvement (control n’125), fantasy role-playing gamers (n’66), and satanic dabbler groups (n’26). Subjects were measured for personality dimensions of psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R); for beliefs in paranormal phenomena using the Belief in the Paranormal Scale (BPS); and for involvement in gaming and satanic practices using the Satanic and Fantasy Envelopment (SAFE) survey. A series of one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlations revealed that fantasy gamers are different from satanic dabblers in major personality characteristics, paranormal beliefs, and interest in satanic practices. The satanic dabblers were significantly higher on psychoticism, introversion, and belief in the paranormal. The evidence is not consistent with the hypothesis that fantasy role-playing games are precursors to satanic practices.

Some parents have become concerned and a number of media reports have claimed that individuals who participate in fantasy role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons, are highly susceptible to beliefs in the paranormal and involvement in satanic practices (Evans, 1991). These games are said to have direct links to satanic crimes, rituals, and suicide, with explicit mention in the media that fantasy role-playing games are soft induction techniques that seduce America’s teens into satanic practice (Larson, 1989; Hicks, 1991). Such allegations have yet to be supported by empirical research (Richardson, Best, & Bromley, 1991).

Scientific research on fantasy role-playing games and their effects on personality is minimal, even though it appears that the popularity of both fantasy role-playing games and satanic involvement is high enough to get attention from mental health professionals (Langone & Blood, 1990). Several empirical studies found no significant differences between gamers and nongamers, but more research is necessary (Carroll & Carolin, 1989; DeRenard & Kline, 1990; Simon, 1987). Although belief in paranormal phenomena does not necessarily imply satanic involvement, there may be a correlation with regard to personality types (Wheeler, Wood, & Hatch, 1988). This study will investigate the possible relationship between the personality types and paranormal beliefs of fantasy role-playing gamers and those of individuals involved in satanic practices.

Fantasy Role-Playing Games

A fantasy role-playing game is defined as “any game which allows a number of players to assume the roles of imaginary characters and operate with some degree of freedom in an imaginary environment” (Lortz, 1979, p. 36). Players devise their own fantasy game persona, with the game master acting as narrator, game creator, and referee. The structure of the game is quite complex and does not involve a board or any specific props, but is played orally and without physically acting (Zayas & Lewis, 1986).

The content of these games has been under moral scrutiny for quite some time by parents, educators, and the media. There have been questions concerning “magical” spells that the characters purportedly can cast, as well as some of the other occult-related game variables, such as the power of magic, mythical beasts, and the abundance of demons and devils as character opponents (Pulling, 1989). The players insist that it is “only a game,” and that the battle between good and evil within the game concludes when the game is over (Fine, 1983). It is this soft introduction to occult-related ideas that particularly concerns parents, lay groups, and the media.

Personality Variables Associated with

Gaming and Satanic Practices

Advocates of fantasy role-playing games appear to have substantial evidence that there is no difference between a gamer’s personality and that of the normal population. Two studies (Simon, 1987; Carroll & Carolin, 1989) that measured personality characteristics of Dungeons & Dragons gamers and nongamers, using Cattell’s 16 PF Test, found no significant differences between the two groups. Another study (DeRenard & Kline, 1990), which attempted to assess alienation among Dungeons & Dragons gamers, revealed no significant differences. Nevertheless, it has been reported in the media that many of the personality types associated with gamers are the same for individuals involved in satanic practices (Hicks, 1991; Larson, 1989; Pulling, 1989).

Method

Subjects

The population of individuals involved in the satanic practices studied here are often called dabblers, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with satanic practices but are not yet fully committed to Satanism (Langone & Blood, 1990). More specifically, a dabbler is one who may attempt magical spells and conjurations based on books, imitation of rituals from movies or other sources, animal mutilations and sacrifice, drinking blood and eating animal organs, self-mutilation, and drug abuse.

The Ss, who voluntarily participated in the survey, were 217 adult males, aged between 18 and 31 (M’age 20.1 yr. SD’1.74), residing in the New York suburban area. Ss were informed that the study was investigating general personality characteristics and belief systems in relation to a person’s engagement in various kinds of activities, hobbies, and practices. Subjects were selected from three different pools, using a random stratified sample of fantasy role-playing gamers, satanic dabblers, and college students who were neither gamers nor dabblers matched for age, marital status, ethnicity (95% Caucasian), and education (minimum 4 years of high school). Fantasy role-playing gamers (n’66) were recruited from various gaming conventions, hobby stores, and gaming clubs. The satanic dabbler group (n’26) was recruited from local occult paraphernalia stores and bookstores, confidential outpatient survivor groups, and underground publications of self-proclaimed satanic splinter groups not involved with an organized satanic church. Only males were studied because of the overwhelming preponderance of males in gaming and satanic practices groups. Control subjects (n’125) were recruited from three suburban college campuses.

Measures

Because it has been reported that a wide range of psychiatric symptoms has been found in subjects involved in Satanism, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R (EPQ-R) (Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett, 1985), a widely used and well-recognized instrument, was used to assess and measure psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism. Because satanic involvement has been associated with a high belief in occult magic (Bourget, Gagnon, & Bradford, 1988), the Belief in Paranormal Scale (BPS) (Jones, Russell, & Nickel, 1977) was used to assess belief in magic. This brief instrument was shown to have higher reliability and content validity than other scales that did not use a factor analytic approach (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983). The higher the raw score, the higher the belief in paranormal phenomena (see Appendix A). Involvement of subjects in fantasy role-playing games and Satanism was measured by the Satanic and Fantasy Envelopment Survey (SAFE), an instrument designed for this study (see Appendix B). Questions rated on face validity were devised to classify subjects into the three groups. The depth of involvement, length of involvement, and cross-over between the three groups were factored out.

Procedure

Ss were handed EPQ-R, BPS, and SAFE questionnaire packets separately for each subject pool, with a consent form when necessary. Group administration was achieved when applicable. No time limit was given for completion, but it was emphasized that Ss should not deliberate over any one question.

Questions directed to us were answered in a vague and ambiguous fashion in order to maintain the integrity of the study. Ss were asked to follow instructions inside the packet and to answer as truthfully as possible; they were told that there were no right or wrong responses. Ss were reassured that their anonymity would be protected.

Statistics

One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests among the three groups were calculated for each scale on the EPQ-R (psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism, and lie), as well as one-way ANOVAs for the BPS and SAFE surveys. An F test was computed for each ANOVA, and the Scheffe Test was used for the Critical Values of F and to calculate the amount of significant differences for each. Correlations between groups were computed to assess the strength of these relationships and the direction using the Pearson product-moment coefficient (r).

Results

First, a series of one-way ANOVAs were computed examining the differences in scores between the three groups on the specific dimensions of personality on the EPQ-R, and for variations of scores on the BPS.

Psychoticism

On the EPQ-R, the psychoticism score revealed significant differences between subject groups F(2,214)’59.427, p.<001. Multiple comparisons using the Scheffe correction revealed that the dabbler group had significantly higher scores on the psychoticism scale than both the gamers and noninvolvement group (p.<05)(see Figure 1).

Extraversion

A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) completed for the extraversion scale between groups revealed significant differences F(2, 214)’12.253, p<.001. Multiple comparisons using the Scheffe correction revealed the dabbler group scored significantly lower than both the gamers and noninvolvement group (p.05), and no significant differences between gamers and noninvolvement groups were found (see Figure 1).

Neuroticism

No significant differences between groups were found for the Neuroticism scale F(2, 214)’.062, p.<05 (see Figure 1).

Lie Scale

Significant differences were revealed on the lie scale between groups F(2, 214)’4.087, p.<05 (see Figure 1). The Scheffe multiple correction revealed that the scores between the gamers and dabbler groups differed significantly, with the dabbler group scoring lower than the gamers.

Belief in the Paranormal

As for the Belief in the Paranormal survey (BPS), a one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups F(2, 214)’30.122,  p.<001. Again, using the Scheffe correction, the dabbler group scored significantly higher in paranormal beliefs than both the gamers and noninvolvement group (p.<05), whose scores were nearly identical (see Figure 2).

Satanic and Fantasy Envelopment (SAFE)

The final one-way ANOVA was computed for the Satanic and Fantasy Envelopment survey (SAFE) for the three groups (see Figure 3).

Multiple comparisons using the Scheffe correction revealed that, as predicted, the noninvolvement group scored significantly lower on the SAFE than both gamers and dabblers F(2, 214)’262.818, p.<001. The gamers scored in the intermediate range, also significantly different from the other groups, whereas the dabbler group scored significantly higher (p.<001) than the other two groups.

Correlations

The noninvolvement group scores on the SAFE were compared with all other variables (i.e., P, E, N, and L of the EPQ-R, and the BPS) (see Table 1). Significant low-positive correlations were revealed for SAFE with BPS, E, and N, while no significant correlations were detected along the P and L scale variables.

The gamers group had no significant correlations regarding SAFE and all other variables (see Table 1).

Significant positive correlations between SAFE and BPS were found for the dabbler group, as was expected (see Table 1).

Table 1. Correlation Coefficients Obtained Between SAFE and BPS and PEN, and L Scores

Noninvolvement

r

Dabbler

r

Gamers

r

BPS

 .36**

 .47*

 .12

P

-.06

-.20

 .22

E

 .24*

-.30

-.01

N

 .35**

 .51*

 .21

L

 .01

 .15

-.13

*p.<05; **p.<001.

SAFE Items

Several results regarding specific items on the SAFE survey were of particular interest. Questions scored for each of the three groups were recorded as percentages for an accurate account of the proportion of a particular group’s “yes” response on that item, as shown here.

Part I.

Have you heard of or are you familiar with the game Dungeons & Dragons?

Noninvolvement:                   87%

Gamers:                100%

Dabbler:                 78%

Have you ever played Dungeons & Dragons or other fantasy role-playing games?

Noninvolvement:                 11%

Gamers:                100%

Dabbler:                   7%

How often do you play? (Gamers only)

Monthly:                 27%

Weekly:                 45%

2x Weekly:                 20%

More:                          8%

I sometimes believe I can cast magical spells.

Noninvolvement:           6%

Gamers:                   8%

Dabbler:                100%

I have collected a fair amount of occult related objects, such as black candles, crystal balls, spell books, tarot cards, etc.

Noninvolvement:           6%

Gamers:                 23%

Dabbler:                 85%

I consider myself a believer in Satanism.

Noninvolvement:           2%

Gamers:                   3%

Dabbler:                100%

I have participated in satanic ceremonies.

Noninvolvement:           2%

Gamers:                   0%

Dabbler:                100%

Part II.

Playing Dungeons & Dragons increased my curiosity about the occult.

Noninvolvement:          1%

Gamers:                36%

Dabbler:                  0%

Playing Dungeons & Dragons increased my curiosity about Satanism.

Noninvolvement:          0%

Gamers:                  3%

Dabbler:                  0%

These percentages seem to support the hypothesis that the dabbler group differs from both the noninvolvement and gamers groups.

Discussion

The results of this study demonstrate the importance of personality factors and belief patterns in differentiating between fantasy role-playing gamers and satanic dabblers. Contrary to popular media statements, the marked differences in scores for psychoticism, extraversion, and belief in the paranormal between fantasy gamers and satanic dabblers indicate that the two are not related.

The most striking findings in the data are found in the three groups’ scores on psychoticism and on the BPS. Both the noninvolvement and gamer groups have nearly identical scores for psychoticism, whereas the satanic dabbler group scored dramatically higher on that scale. These findings were also the same for the BPS, which clearly suggests that fantasy gamers and the noninvolvement group do not possess the same major paranormal beliefs and personality instability as the satanic dabbler group. This finding also implies that fantasy gamers do not have an increased distortion of reality compared to a noninvolvement control group.

One finding in particular shows that none (0%) of the dabblers had reported that playing Dungeons & Dragons increased their curiosity about the occult, whereas 36% of the gamers did state that playing Dungeons & Dragons increased their curiosity about the occult. In the subsequent question, however, none (0%) of the dabbler group reported that Dungeons & Dragons increased their curiosity about Satanism, and only 3% of gamers reported such an increase. This also suggests that the occult and Satanism are two distinctly different realms, and that one does not necessarily lead to the next.

These results do not support popular media suggestions that involvement in fantasy role-playing games are the direct antecedents to satanic practices, beliefs in magical spells, and demon-summoning in impressionable youth. It is puzzling that even though dabblers score significantly higher on psychoticism than do the other groups, psychoticism did not correlate significantly with the SAFE score. Perhaps psychoticism may contribute to satanic involvement, but not to additional degrees of involvement. Conceivably, the satanic involvement itself creates a false-positive score on the EPQ-R’s psychoticism scale.

The empirical evidence in this study reveals no link between fantasy role-playing games and satanic practices, and provides data that suggest that individuals involved in satanic practices are in fact a different subgroup in regard to their scores on the EPQ-R and BPS. It is not understood why individuals become involved in these practices, or what combination of events leads to such involvement; but it does appear that fantasy role-playing games do not play any significant part in that process. Further research is needed to better understand the factors and processes that lead to destructive satanic practices.

*******************

Appendix A

Belief in the Paranormal Scale (BPS)

This inventory represents an attempt to discover which of the various paranormal events and phenomena you believe to be most likely and which you believe to be least likely. There are no right or wrong answers. Also, this is not an attempt to belittle or make fun of your beliefs. Therefore, please indicate your true feelings as well as you can. If you are unsure or ambivalent, so indicate by marking undecided and proceed to the next item. Indicate your answers by marking the answer sheet using the following format:

1. Strongly Disagree with Statement

2. Disagree with Statement

3. Undecided or Don’t Know

4. Agree with Statement

5. Strongly Agree with Statement

 1.        I believe psychic phenomena are real, and should become a part of psychology and be studied scientifically.

 2.        All UFO sightings are either other forms of physical phenomena (such as weather balloons) or simply hallucinations.

 3.        I am convinced the Abominable Snowman of Tibet really exists.

 4.        I firmly believe that ghosts or spirits do exist.

 5.        Black magic really exists and should be dealt with in a serious manner.

 6.        Witches and warlocks do exist.

 7.        Only the uneducated or the demented believe in the supernatural and  the occult.

 8.        Through psychic individuals it is possible to communicate with the dead.

 9.        I believe the Loch Ness monster of Scotland exists.

10.        I believe that once a person dies his spirit may come back from time to time in the form of ghosts.

11.        Some individuals are able to levitate (i.e., lift themselves or other objects) through mysterious mental forces.

12.        I believe that many special persons throughout the world have the ability to predict the future.

13.        The idea of being able to tell the future through the means of palm reading represents the beliefs of foolish and unreliable persons.

14.        I am firmly convinced that reincarnation has been occurring throughout history and that it will continue to occur.

15.        I firmly believe that, at least on some occasions, I can read another person’s mind via ESP (extrasensory perception).

16.        ESP is an unusual gift that many persons have and should not be confused with the elaborate tricks used by entertainers.

17.        Ghosts and witches do not exist outside the realm of imagination.

18.        Supernatural phenomena should become part of scientific study, equal in importance to physical phenomena.

19.        All of the reports of “scientific proof” of psychic phenomena are strictly sensationalism with no factual basis.

20.        Through the use of mysterious formulas and incantations it is possible to cast spells on individuals.

21.        With proper training anyone could learn to read other people’s minds.

22.        It is advisable to consult your horoscope daily.

23.        Plants can sense the feelings of humans through a form of ESP.

24.        ESP has been scientifically proven to exist.

25.        There is a great deal we have yet to understand about the mind of man, so it is likely that many phenomena (such as ESP) will one day be proven to exist.

Appendix B

Satanic and Fantasy Envelopment Survey (SAFE)

The Satanic and Fantasy Envelopment Survey is an original survey devised by the author to measure the degree of involvement in both fantasy role-playing games and satanic practices.

This is an anonymous questionnaire. Please be as open and honest as you can be. Fill in the top then circle either Y (yes) or N (no), or circle the appropriate choice following the question. Please comment if needed. There are no right or wrong answers. Please read all the questions.

Age________Ethnicity____________Sex____Religion__________

Marital Status:        married        single                divorced

Last year of education completed: 11  12  13  14  15  16  grad.

Part I.

 1.        Have you heard of or are you familiar with the game Dungeons & Dragons?     Yes     No

 2.        Have you ever played Dungeons & Dragons or other fantasy role-playing games?     Yes     No

(Please specify if yes) _______________________________

If no, proceed to question 7

 3.        If yes, how many years have you played?

Under 1        1-2         3-5        6-10        10+

 4.        How often do you play?

Monthly        Weekly        2x/wk                More

 5.        I play with:

A regularly scheduled group        Different groups        Solo

 6.        I usually play:

A character        Dungeon Master        Both equally

 7.        I have bought or made my own swords, knives, or other weapons.         Yes       No

 8.        I sometimes believe I can cast magical spells. Yes    No

 9.        I have collected a fair amount of occult-related objects, such as black candles, crystal ball, spell books, tarot cards, etc. Yes    No

10.        I believe people can summon demons or devils. Yes    No

11.        I believe Satan exists. Yes    No

12.        I consider myself a believer in Satanism. Yes    No

13.        I have a satanic bible or other related books. Yes    No

14.        I have participated in satanic ceremonies. Yes    No

15.        I believe Satan will give me power. Yes    No

16.        I believe in God. Yes    No

17.        My friends also believe in Black magic. Yes    No

18.        I have practiced magical rituals alone or with friends. Yes    No

19.        I have used animals in these rituals. Yes    No

20.        I have drunk the blood of animals during a ritual. Yes    No

21.        I control my own destiny. Yes    No

Part II. Circle one. (NA=Not Applicable)

 1.        I became involved in fantasy role-playing games mainly through:

Friends        Family                Movies                Books                         Other________________                NA

 2.        I became involved in satanic practices mainly through:

Friends        Family                Movies                Books                        Other________________                NA

 3.        Playing Dungeons & Dragons increased my curiosity about the occult.     Yes       No       NA

 4.        Playing Dungeons & Dragons increased my curiosity about Satanism.     Yes       No       NA

Appendix C

Score Sheet

This is an anonymous questionnaire. Please be as open and honest as you can be. Fill in the top, then circle either Y (yes) or N (no), or circle the appropriate choice following the question. Please comment if needed. There are no right or wrong answers. Please read all the questions.

Age____ Ethnicity__________ Sex ____  Religion __________

Marital Status:        married        single                divorced

Last year of education completed:  11  12  13  14  15  16  grad.

Part I.

 1.        Have you heard of or are you familiar with the game Dungeons & Dragons?    Yes (1)      No (0)

 2.        Have you ever played Dungeons & Dragons or other fantasy role-playing games?    Yes (1)     No (0)

(Please specify if yes) ________________________

If no, proceed to question 7

 3.        If yes, how many years have you played?

Under 1(1)     1B2(2)     3-5(3)     6B10(4)     10+(5)

 4.        How often do you play?

Monthly (2)        Weekly (3)        2x/wk (4)        More (5)

 5.        I play with:

A regularly scheduled group (2)        Different groups (3)   Solo (3)

 6.        I usually play:

A character (2)        Dungeon Master (3)        Both equally (3)

 7.        I have bought or made my own swords, knives, or other weapons.         Yes (3)        No (0)

 8.        I sometimes believe I can cast magical spells.  Yes (4)    No (0)

 9.        I have collected a fair amount of occult-related objects, such as black candles, crystal ball, spell books, tarot cards. Yes (3)   No (0)

10.        I believe people can summon demons or devils.    Yes (4)    No (0)

11.        I believe Satan exists.    Yes (2)    No (0)

12.        I consider myself a believer in Satanism.        Yes (5)           No (0)

13.        I have a satanic bible or other related books. Yes (3)   No (0)

14.        I have participated in satanic ceremonies.        Yes (5)    No (0)

15.        I believe Satan will give me power.        Yes (4)    No (0)

16.        I believe in God.        Yes (1)   No (0)

17.        My friends also believe in Black magic.   Yes (3)    No (0)

18.        I have practiced magical rituals alone or with friends. Yes (4)  No(0)

19.        I have used animals in these rituals.  Yes (5)     No (0)

20.        I have drunk the blood of animals during a ritual. Yes (5)    No (0)

21.        I control my own destiny.        Yes (2)    No (0)

Part II.  Circle one.   (NA=Not Applicable)

 1.        I became involved in fantasy role-playing games mainly through:

Friends(3)        Family (4)         Movies (2)        Books (2)

Other (1)____________                NA (0)

 2.        I became involved in satanic practices mainly through:

Friends (3)        Family (4)        Movies (2)        Books (2)

Other (1)____________                NA (0)

 3.        Playing Dungeons & Dragons increased my curiosity about the occult.        Yes (3)                No (0)                NA (0)

 4.        Playing Dungeons & Dragons increased my curiosity about Satanism.        Yes (5)                No (0)                NA (0)

High score: 87

Low score: 0

        Appendix D

        Instructions for Scoring and Interpreting the SAFE Survey

As shown on the SAFE score sheet, each item has a corresponding number in the parentheses. Each is weighted so that the higher the score, the more involved that subject is in respect to the particular group, gamers, dabblers, or possibly both. If scores from questions #1B6 are lower than 9, the subject is not considered to be in the gamers group. If scores from questions #7B21 are less than 18, then the subject is not considered a dabbler. Overall scores of 20 or less are considered as noninvolvement.

The numbers in parentheses are the weighted scores that correspond to each item. Add up each circled answer using that score for a total raw score. Average mean score for each group can then be obtained to determine a degree of intensity of involvement (i.e., low average’low intensity, high average=high degree of involvement).

Part II is included in overall analyses, and contributes to intensity of involvement.

        References

Bourget, D., Gagnon, A., & Bradford, M.W. (1988). Satanism in a psychiatric adolescent population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 33(3), 197B201.

Carroll, J.L., & Carolin, P.M. (1989). Relationship between game playing and personality. Psychological Reports, 64, 705B706.

DeRenard, L.A., & Kline, M.L. (1990). Alienation and the game Dungeons and Dragons. Psychological Reports, 66, 1219B1222.

Evans, C. (1991). Teens and devil worship: What everyone should know. Lafayette, LA: Huntington House.

Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1975). The EPQ Manual. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Eysenck, S.B.G., Eysenck, H.J., & Barrett, P. (1985). A revised version of the psychoticism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 6, 21B29.

Fine, G.A. (1983). Shared Fantasy: Role-playing games as social worlds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hicks, R.D. (1991). In Pursuit of Satan: The police and the occult. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Jones, W., Russell, D., & Nickel, T. (1977). Belief in the paranormal scale: An objective instrument to measure belief in magical phenomena and causes [Ms. No. 1577]. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 7, 100.

Langone, M.D., & Blood, L. (1990). Satanism and occult-related violence: What you should know. Bonita Springs, FL.: American Family Foundation.

Larson, B. (1989). Satanism: The seduction of America’s youth. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

Lortz, S.L. (1979). Role-playing. Different Worlds, 1, 26B27.

Pulling, P. (1989). The devil’s web: Who is stalking your children for Satan? Lafayette, LA: Huntington House.

Richardson, J.T., Best, J., & Bromley, D.G. (Eds.). (1991). The Satanism scare. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Simon, A. (1987). Emotional stability pertaining to the game of Dungeons & Dragons. Psychology in the Schools, 24, 329B332.

Tobacyk, J., & Milford, G. (1983). Belief in paranormal phenomena: Assessment instrument development and implications for personality functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(5), 1029B1037.

Wheeler, B.R., Wood, S., & Hatch, R.C. (1988, November-December). Assessment and intervention with adolescents involved in Satanism. Social Work, 547B550.

Zayas, L.H., & Lewis, B.H. (1986). Fantasy role-playing for mutual aid in children’s groups: A case illustration. Social Work with Groups, 9(1), 53B65.

        Acknowledgments

This report is based on a master’s thesis completed at the City College of New York. I would like to thank Dr. A. Wessman of the City College of New York for his supervision on this thesis of such an unorthodox nature. I am especially grateful to my wife, Elizabeth, whose constant support proved invaluable to this work.

**********************

Stuart M. Leeds, M.A., is currently in his third year of doctoral training in clinical psychology at the Illinois School of Professional Psychology, Meadows Campus. He is doing further research on teen vulnerability to destructive cult indoctrination.