Bibliography: Papers Related to Clinical Work With Families and Former Group Members

Kristine Langone

This bibliography lists resources relevant to the clinical treatment of people adversely affected by involvement in high-demand or cultic groups, including former group members, concerned family members, and those born or raised in groups. Selected general resources on research, trauma, and other topics, as well as historically significant documents, have also been included, if deemed relevant to clinicians working in this field. Many of these articles can be found on this website's article pageThis is NOT a general cultic studies bibliography. 

This bibliography was originally published in ICSA's Cult Recovery: A Clinician's Guide to Working With Former Members and Families (2017), Edited by Lorna Goldberg, LCSW, PsyA, William Goldberg, LCSW, PsyA, Rosanne Henry, MA, LPC, and Michael Langone, PhD. 

This online version is made available so that the bibliography can be updated from time to time.

To make this bibliography as comprehensive as possible, please send suggested additions that are directly pertinent to clinical treatment to mail@icsamail.com. Make sure that you send complete bibliographic data for the item(s) you recommend. Thank you.

------------------------------------------

ACE Study. (2011). The Adverse Experiences Study. Available from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/about.html

Adams-Weiss, D., Burks, R., Sammons, G., & Svoboda, L. (2017). The Wellspring program: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 15, pp. 321-338). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Addis, M., Schulman-Miller, J., & Lightman, M. (1984). The cult clinic helps families in crisis. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 515–522.

Agustin, D. (2011). Family dynamics during a cult crisis. ICSA Today, 2(2), 6–8.

Allen, A. (2016). Impact on children of being born into/raised in a cultic group. ICSA Today, 7(1), 17–22.

Almendros, C., Carrobles, J. A., & Rodriguez-Carballeira, A. (2007). Former members’ perceptions of cult involvement. Cultic Studies Review, 6(1), 1–20.

Almendros, C., Carrobles, J. A., Rodriguez-Carballeira, A., & Gamez-Guadix, M. (2009). Reasons for leaving: Psychological abuse and distress reported by former members of cultic groups. Cultic Studies Review, 8(2), 111–138.

Almendros, C., Gamez-Guadix, M., Rodriguez-Carballeira, A., & Carrobles, J. A. (2011). Assessment of psychological abuse in manipulative groups. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 2, 6176.

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. (1996). Psychosocial evaluation of suspected psychological maltreatment in children and adolescents. Cultic Studies Journal, 13(2), 153170.

Aronoff McKibben, J., Lyn, S. J., & Malinoski, P. (2000). Are cultic environments psychologically harmful? Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 91111. [Reprinted in Cultic Studies Review, 1(3), 110–129 (see https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4dmoPK1tYNjUWdJYmloNUhKRFE/edit; available online at http://www.icsahome.com/articles/are-cultic-environments-psychologically-harmful]

Ash, S. M. (1985). Cult-induced psychopathology, part 1: Clinical picture. Cultic Studies Journal, 2(1), 31–90.

Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70(9), 1–70 (Whole no. 416).

Asser, S., & Swan, R. (2000). Child fatalities from religion-motivated medical neglect. Cultic Studies Journal, 17, 1–4.

Ayella, M. (1998). Insane therapy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Baker, A. J. L. (2005). The cult of parenthood: A qualitative study of parental alienation. Cultic Studies Review, 4(1), 1–29.

Bardin, D. (1994). Psychological coercion and human rights: Mind control (“brainwashing”) exists. Washington, DC: Cult Abuse Policy and Research, 19 Apr. (Available from ICSA at http://www.icsahome.com/articles/psychological-coercion-and-human-rights-bardin)

Bardin, L. (2000). Coping with cult involvement: A handbook for families & friends (2nd ed.). Bonita Springs, FL: American Family Foundation.

Bardin, L. (2005). Child protection in an authoritarian community: Culture clash and systematic weakness. Cultic Studies Review 4(3), 233–267.

Bardin, L. (2009). Recognizing and working with an underserved culture: Child protection and cults. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 3(2), 114–138.

Bardin, L. (2012). Starting out in mainstream America. Bonita Springs, FL: International Cultic Studies Association (Available from http://startingout.icsa.name/)

Barker, E. (1984). The making of a Moonie: Choice or brainwashing? Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.

Barker, E. (1990). New religious movements: A practical introduction. London, UK: HMSO.

Beall, L. (2011). The impact of a modern-day polygamy group on women and children. ICSA Today, 2(1), pp. 3–8.

Bloch, A., & Shor, R. (1989). From consultation to therapy in group work with parents of cultists. Social Casework, 70(4), 231–236.

Boeri, M. W., & Boeri, K. (2008). Intergenerational memories of life in a cult: A life course analysis, Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, 3(1), 79–90.

Boulette, T., & Andersen, S. (1986). “Mind control” and the battering of women. Cultic Studies Journal, 3(1), 25–35.

Boyle, R. (1999). How children in cults may use emancipation laws to free themselves. Cultic Studies Review, 16(1), 1–32.

Brown, D., Scheflin, A., & Hammond, D. C. (1998). Memory, trauma treatment, and the law. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Burke, J. (2006). Antisocial personality disorder in cult leaders and induction of dependent personality disorder in cult members. Cultic Studies Review, 5(3), 390–410.

Burks, R., & Burks, V. (1992). Damaged disciples. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Burks, R. (2014). 2012 Paul Martin Lecture: Thought reform and the psychology of breaking away from totalism. ICSA Today, 5(3), 10–13.

Cartwright, R., & Kent, S. (1992) Social control in alternative religions: A familial perspective. Sociological Analysis, 53(4), 345–361.

Casoni, D., Pacheco, A., & Kropveld, M. (2015). State intervention against the Baptist Church of Windsor: From law-abiding citizens to perpetrators of severe child physical abuse, International Journal of Cultic Studies, 6, 83–99.

Chambers, W. V., Langone, M. D., Dole, A. A., & Grice, J. W. (1994). The Group Psychological Abuse Scale: A measure of the varieties of cultic abuse. Cultic Studies Journal, 11(1), 88–117.

Cialdini, R. (1984). Influence: How and why people agree to things. New York, NY: William Morrow.

Clark, D., Giambalvo, C., Giambalvo, N., Garvey, K., & Langone, M. D. (1993). Exit counseling: A practical overview. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 155–180). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Clark, J. G. (1979, July). Cults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 242, 279–281.

Clark, J. (1978). Problems in referral of cult members. Journal of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals, 9(4), 27–29.

Clark, J. G., Langone, M. D., Schecter, R. E., & Daly, R. C. (1981). Destructive cult conversion: Theory, research, and treatment. Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Clifford, M. (1994). Social work treatment with children, adolescents, and families exposed to religious and satanic cults. Social Work in Health Care, 20(2), 35–55.

Conway, F., & Siegelman, J. (1982, January). Information disease: Have cults created a new mental illness? Science Digest, pp. 86, 88, 90–92.

Conway, F., Siegelman, J. H., & Coggins, J. (1986). Information disease: Effects of covert induction and deprogramming. Update, 10(2), 45–57.

Coates, D. D. (2011). Counselling former members of charismatic groups: Considering pre-involvement variables, reasons for joining the group and corresponding values. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14(3), 191–207.

Coates, D. D. (2012). “Cult commitment” from the perspective of former members: Direct rewards of membership versus dependency inducing practices. Deviant Behavior, 33(3), 168–184.

Coates, D. D. (2013). A symbolic interactionist understanding of the selves of former members of New Religious Movements. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 16(10), 1066–1079.

Coates, D. D. (2013). Disaffiliation from a new religious movement: The importance of self and others in exit. Symbolic Interaction, 36(3), 314–334.

Coates, D. D. (2014). New religious movement membership and the importance of stable ‘others’ for the making of selves. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(5), 1300–1316.

Committee on Bioethics, American Academy of Pediatrics. (1988). Religious exemptions from child abuse statutes. Pediatrics, 81(1) (January), 169–171.

Courtois, C., & Ford, J. D. (Ed.). (2009). Treating complex trauma: An evidence based guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Cox, H. (1977). Turning East: The promise and peril of the new orientalism. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Craig, N., & Weathers, R. (1990). The false transformational promise of Bible-based cults: Archetypal dynamics. Cultic Studies Journal, 7(2), 160–173.

Crawley, K., Paulina, D., & White, R. (1990). Reintegration of exiting cult members with their families: A brief intervention model. Cultic Studies Journal, 7(1), 26–40.

Cushman, P. (1989). Iron fists/velvet gloves: A study of a mass marathon psychology training. Psychotherapy 26(1), 23–39.

Cushman, P. (1986). The self besieged: Recruitment-indoctrination processes in restrictive groups. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 16(1), 1–32.

Dahlen, P. (1997). Working with women survivors of cults: An empowerment model for counselors. Cultic Studies Journal, 14(1), 145–154.

Dann, M. (1983). Spiritual reconnection: An approach to counseling cultists. In R. E. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 48–49). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Dell, P. F., & O’Neil, J. A. (2009). Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Derocher, L. (2015). Intervene with religious sects in youth protection, Intervenir auprès de sectes religieuses en protection de la jeunesse : Un défi. Quebec, Canada: Presses De I’Universite du Quebec.

Deutsch, A., & Miller, M. (1983). A clinical study of four Unification Church members. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140(6), 767–770.

DeYoung, R. (2009). A single-case design implementing eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with an ex-cult member. Cultic Studies Review, 8(2), 139–153.

Di Marzio, R. (2015). Meditating to settle conflicts in cultic groups: Some useful methodologies. ICSA Today, 6(2), 12–15.

Dole, A. (1995). Clinical case studies of cult members. Cultic Studies Journal, 12(2), 121-–147.

Dowhower, R. (2013). The results of the International Cultic Studies Association’s 2008 Questionnaire for Former Cult Members. ICSA Today, 4(1), 10–11.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (1989). Deprogramming: A case study. Part I: Personal observations of the group process [Special issue]. Cultic Studies Journal, 6(2), 1–117.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (1990). Deprogramming: A case study. Part II: Conversation analysis. Cultic Studies Journal, 7, 174–216.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (2001). Saying goodbye to the guru: Brief intermittent developmental therapy with a young adult in a high demand group. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 16(1–2), 153–170.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (2002). Saying good-bye to the guru: Brief intermittent developmental therapy with a young adult in a high demand group. In S. Cooper (Ed.), Casebook of brief psychotherapy with college students (pp. 153–170). Binghamton, NY: Haworth.

Dubrow-Eichel, S., & Dubrow-Eichel, L. (1988). Trouble in paradise: Some observations on psychotherapy with new agers. Cultic Studies Journal, 5(2), 177192.

Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2010). The influence continuum—The good, the dubious, and the harmful—Evidence and implications for policy and practice in the 21st century. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 1, 1–13.

Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2011). Paul R. Martin memorial lecture. ICSA Today, 2(2), 14–17.

Dubrow-Marshall, R., & Dubrow-Marshall, L. (2016). Cults and mental health. In Howard S. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health (second edition). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, Academic Press.

Dubrow-Marshall, R., & Dubrow-Marshall, L. (2016, February 2). “How to talk someone out of a damaging cult,” The Conversation.

Dubrow-Marshall, L., & Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2017). The role of self-care in cult recovery: Issues for practitioners, members, and former members of cultic groups and their families. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 10, pp. 215-240). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Dubrow-Marshall, L., and Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2017, April 4). “Domestic abuse: even the judges are getting it wrong,” The Conversation.

Duncan, W. J. (2006). I can't hear God anymore: Life in a Dallas cult. Garland, TX: VM Life Resources.

Durocher, N. (1999). Insights from cult survivors regarding group support. British Journal of Social Work, 29(4), 581–599.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2001). Saying goodbye to the guru: Brief intermittent developmental therapy with a young adult in a high demand group. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 16(1–2), 153–170.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2016). Counseling former cultists: The brief intermittent development therapy (BIDT) approach. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 7, 1–14.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2016). Cults, extremist movements, and the child custody evaluation: Pitfalls and strategies. In Goldstein, Mark L. (Ed.), Handbook of child custody (pp. 273–289). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2016). The theory that won’t go away: An updated review of the role hypnosis plays in mind control. ICSA Today 7(1), 23–27.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2017). Counseling former cultists: The brief intermittent developmental therapy (BIDT) approach. (2017). In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 5, pp. 95-116). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Eichel, S. K. D., Eichel, L. D., & Eisenberg, R. C. (1984). Mental health interventions in cult-related cases: Preliminary investigation of outcomes. Cultic Studies Journal, 1(2), 156–166).

Enroth, R. M. (1993). Churches that abuse. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Available online at http://www.apologeticsindex.org/716-churches-that-abuse-online-book

Enroth, R. M. (1994). Recovering from churches that abuse. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Available online at http://www.apologeticsindex.org/958-recovering-from-churches-that-abuse-online-book

Enroth, R. M., Ericson, E. E., & Peters, C. B. (1972). Jesus people: Old-time religion in the age of Aquarius. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Fernández Aguado, J. (2015). Psychological manipulation, hypnosis, and suggestion. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 6, 48–59.

Farber, I. E., Harlow, H. F., & West, L. J. (1956). Brainwashing, conditioning, and DDD (debility, dependency, and dread). Sociometry, 20, 271–285.

Fine, Y., & Corlin, Z. (1983). Toward family reunification: Counseling the cult recruit. In R. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 12–17). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Finkelstein, P., Wenegrat, B., & Yalom, I. (1982). Large groups awareness training. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 515–538.

Ford, W. (1993). Recovery from abusive groups. Bonita Springs, FL: American Family Foundation.

Foster, J., Loomis, R., Szimhart, J., & Wilcox, L. (2003). The evolution of a cult and a support group for the families of its members: The Jim Roberts group and the Roberts Group Parents Network. Cultic Studies Review, 2(2), 151–168.

French, M., & Stout, C. (1991). Ethical considerations for psychologists involved in child custody cases. In P. Keller & S. Heyman (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice (pp. 499–505). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.

Furnari, L. (2005, September). Born or raised in closed, high-demand groups: Developmental considerations. ICSA E-Newsletter, 4(3).

Furnari, L. (2017). EMDR—Overview and application with first- and second-generation former group members. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 7, pp. 141-170). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Furnari, L., & Henry, R. (2012). Lessons learned from SGAs about recovery and resiliency. ICSA Today, 2(3), 3–9.

Gaines, M. J., Wilson, M. A., Redican, K. J., & Baffi, C. R. (1984). The effects of cult membership on the health status of adults and children. Health Values: Achieving High Level Wellness. 8(2) (March/April), 13–17.

Galanter, M. (Ed.). (1989). Cults and new religious movements. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Galanter, M. (1999). Cults; faith, healing and coercion (second edition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Galanter, M. (2013). Charismatic groups and cults: A psychological and social analysis. In Kenneth I. Pargament, Julie J. Exline, & James W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol. 1): Context, theory, and research. APA handbooks in psychology (pp. 729–740). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gasde, I., & Block, R. A. (1998). Cult experience: Psychological abuse, distress, personality characteristics, and changes in personal relationships reported by former members of Church Universal and Triumphant, Cultic Studies Journal, 15(2), 192–221. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/cult-experience-psychological-abuse-csj-15-2

Garvey, K. (1993). The importance of information in preparing for exist counseling: A case study. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 181–202). New York, NY: Norton.

Giambalvo, C. (1992). Exit counseling: How to respond to cult-affected loved ones. Bonita Springs, FL: American Family Foundation. (Re-issued as Family interventions for cult-affected loved ones, available online at https://drive.google.com/file/d/
0B7wsUBpBPDH5MDdhYjQwMDAtMzkwNy00MDM3LWFhYmQtZDg3MjFhZGVjZTVl/view?usp=sharing)

Giambalvo, C. (1993). Post-cult problems: An exit counselor’s perspective. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 148–154). New York, NY: Norton.

Giambalvo, C. (2017). Exit counseling. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 3, pp. 45-54). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Giambalvo, C., & Henry, R. (2010). ICSA recovery workshops: The Colorado model. ICSA Today, 1(1), 2–9.

Giambalvo, C., Kropveld, M., & Langone, M. D. (2013). Changes in the North American cult awareness movement. In E. Barker (Ed.), Revisionism and diversification in new religious movements (pp. 227–246). London, UK: Ashgate.

Giambalvo, C., & Miquelon, N. (2017). The Colorado model recovery workshop. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 14, pp. 303-320). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Gibson, K., Morgan, M., Woolley, C., & Powis, T. (2011). Growing up at Centrepoint: Retrospective accounts of childhood spent at an intentional community. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 20(4), 413–434.

Gibson, K., Morgan, M., Woolley, C., Powis, T. (2011). Life after Centrepoint: Accounts of adult adjustment after childhood spent at an experimental community. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 40(3), 41–51.

Goldberg, L. (1993). Guidelines for therapists. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 232–250). New York, NY: Norton.

Goldberg, L. (2003). A psychoanalytic look at recovered memories, therapists, cult leaders, and undue influence. Cultic Studies Review, 2(3), 246–264.

Goldberg, L. (2003). Reflections on marriage and children after the cult. Cultic Studies Review, 2(1), 9–29.

Goldberg, L. (2006). Raised in cultic groups: The impact on the development of certain aspects of character. Cultic Studies Review, 5(1), 1–28.

Goldberg, L. (2011). Diana, leaving the cult: Play therapy in childhood and talk therapy in adolescence. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 2, 33–43.

Goldberg, L. (2012). Influence of a charismatic antisocial cult leader: Psychotherapy with an ex-cultist prosecuted for criminal behavior. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 5, 15–24.

Goldberg, L. (2013). Marriage after the cult. ICSA Today, 4(2), 2–5.

Goldberg, L. (2014). A few things I’ve learned and some people I’ve learned from. ICSA Today, (5)3, 2–8.

Goldberg, L. (2017). Helping first-generation parents and second-generation children heal the impact of cult harm. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 11, pp. 241-260). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Goldberg, L., & Goldberg, W. (1982). Group work with former cultists. Social Work, 27(2), 165–170.

Goldberg, L., & Goldberg, W. (1988). Psychotherapy with ex-cultists: Four case studies and commentary. Cultic Studies Journal, 5(2), 193–210.

Goldberg, L., & Goldberg, W. (1989). Family responses to a young adult’s cult membership and return. Cultic Studies Journal, 6(1), 86–100.

Goldberg, W., & Goldberg, L. (2017). Support group for former cult members. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 12, pp. 265-276). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Goldberg, W. (1993). Guidelines for support groups. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 275–284). New York, NY: Norton.

Goldberg, W. (2017). Working with families. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 1, pp. 7-18). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Goode, E. (1999, April 14). Writing about trauma is seen to ease illness in some. The New York Times.

Green, M. E. (2010). Post-cult financial recovery. ICSA Today, 1(1), 24–27.

Greene, F. (1989). Litigating child custody with religious cults. Cultic Studies Journal, 6(1), 69–75.

Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1956). Methods of forceful indoctrination: Observations and interviews. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1992). Leaders and followers. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Haaken, J., & Adams, R. Pathology as “personal growth”: A participant-observation study of Lifespring training. Psychiatry, 46 (August), 270–280.

Halperin, D. (1982). Group processes in cult affiliation and recruitment. Group, 6(2), 13–24.

Halperin, D. (Ed.). (1983). Psychodynamic perspectives on religion, sect, and cult. Boston, MA: John Wright.

Halperin, D. A. (1989). Families and cult members: Consultation and treatment. In M. Galanter (Ed.), Cults and new religious movements (pp. 109–126). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Halperin, D. A. (1993). Guidelines for psychiatric hospitalization of ex-cultists. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 263–274). New York, NY: Norton.

Halperin, D. (1990). Psychiatric perspectives on cult affiliation. Psychiatric Annals, 20(4), 204.

Hamburg, P., & Hoffman, D. (1989). Psychotherapy of cult members. In M. Galanter (Ed.), Cults and new religious movements (pp. 3–12). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Harrison, B. (1984). Horror at Island Pond. New England Monthly, December, 56–70.

Hassan, S. (1983). Exit counseling: Working to undo the shackles of mind control. In R. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 18–26). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Hassan, S. (1988). Combatting cult mind control. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press.

Hassan, S. (2000). Releasing the bonds: Empowering people to think for themselves. Danbury, CT: Aitan Publishing Company.

Hassan, S. (2004). The strategic interaction approach. ICSA e-Newsletter, 3(2).

Hassan, S. (2012). Freedom of mind: Helping loved ones leave controlling people, cults, and beliefs. Newton, MA: Freedom of Mind Press.

Henry, R. (2017). Mentalization attachment approach to cult recovery. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 6, pp. 117-140). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Herman, J. (1997). Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence—From domestic abuse to political terror. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Hochman, J. (1984). Iatrogenic symptoms associated with a therapy cult: Examination of a “new psychotherapy” with respect to psychiatric deterioration and “brainwashing.” Psychiatry, 47, 366–377.

Hochman, J. (1990). Miracle, mystery and authority: The triangle of cult indoctrination. Psychiatric Annals, 20(4), 179.

Ireland, S., & Ireland, M. (1994). A case history of family and cult abuse. The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), 417–428.

Jemsek, G. (2014). Reclaiming life stories after cult immersion. ICSA Today, 5(2), 6–10.

Jenkinson, G. (2008). An investigation into cult pseudo-personality: What is it and how does it form? Cultic Studies Review, 7(3), 199–224.

Jenkinson, G. (2014). Rebuilding the jigsaw. ICSA Today, 5(2), 2–5.

Jenkinson, G. (2017). Relational psychoeducational intensive—Time away for postcult counselling. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 16, pp. 339-366). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Johnson, D., & Van Vonderen, J. (1991). The subtle power of spiritual abuse. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House.

Kandel, R. (1987/1988). Litigating the cult-related child custody case. Cultic Studies Journal, 4(2)/5(1), 123–131.

Kelly, S. J. (1993). Ritualistic abuse of children in day-care centers. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 343–355). New York, NY: Norton.

Kendall, L. (2006). A psychological exploration into the effects of former membership of “extremist authoritarian sects.” (PhD dissertation.) Brunel University, Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College, UK.

Kendall, L. (2010, summer). Physical child abuse in sects. Paradigm, 15(3), 6–8. [Reprinted in ICSA Today, 2(2), 2–5 (2011).]

Kendall, L. (2016). Born and raised in a sect: You are not alone. Charleston, SC: Progression Publishing.

Kendall, L. (2017a). How to approach cultic studies research. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 19, pp. 415-426). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Kendall, L. (2017b). What the research tells us. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 20, pp. 427-478). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Kent, S. A. (2001). From slogans to mantras. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Kent, S. A. (2004). Scientific evaluation of the dangers posed by religious groups: A partial model. Cultic Studies Review, 3(2/3), 101–134.Kent, S. A. (2010). House of Judah, the Northeast Kingdom Community, and the Jonestown problem: Downplaying child physical abuses and ignoring serious evidence. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 1, 27–48.

Kent, S. A. (2012). Religious justification for child sexual abuse in cults and alternative religions, International Journal of Cultic Studies, 3, 49–73.

Kent, S. A., & Szimhart, J. (2002). Exit counseling and the decline of deprogramming. Cultic Studies Review, 1(3), 241–291.

Khan, A. (2012). Psychological makeup of a Pakistani Muslim suicide bomber: An observation-based perspective. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 5, 25–34.

Kilbourne, B. (1989). Psychotherapeutic implications of new religious affiliation. In M. Galanter (Ed.), Cults and new religious movements (pp. 127–146). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Kirsch, M., & Glass, L. (1977, November). Psychiatric disturbances associated with Erhard Seminars training: II. Additional cases and theoretical considerations. American Journal of Psychiatry 134(11), 1254–1258.

Knapp, P. (2017). An independent faith-based approach to support and recovery groups for those affected by harmful religious environments. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 13, pp. 277-298). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Kramer, J., & Alstad, D. (1993). The guru papers: Masks of authoritarian power. Berkeley, CA: Frog Ltd.

Kropveld, M. (2008). A comparison of different countries’ approaches to cult-related issues. ICSA e-Newsletter, 7(1).

Kropveld, M., & Pelland, M. (2006). The cult phenomenon: How groups function. Montreal, Canada: Info-Secte/Info-Cult. [Translated from the French by N. DeCruz & G. Schulman).

Lalich, J. (Ed.). (1997). Women Under the Influence (special issue). Cultic Studies Journal, 14(1).

Lalich, J. (2004). Bounded choice: True believers and charismatic cults. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Lalich, J., & Tobias, M. (2006). Take back your life: Recovering from cults and abusive relationships. Berkeley, CA: Bay Tree Publishing.

Landa, S. (1985). Hidden terror: Child abuse in religious sects and cults. Justice for Children, 1(2), 2–5.

Landa, S. (1989). Warning signs: The effects of authoritarianism on children in cults. Areopagus Trinity, 16–19.

Landa, S. (1991). Children and cults: A practical guide. Journal of Family Law 29(3), 591–634.

Langone, M. D. (n.d.). Prevalence. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/prevalence

Langone, M. D. (n.d.). Questionnaire study preliminary report. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/questionnaire-study-preliminary-report-langone

Langone, M. D. (1983). Counseling individuals and families troubled by cult involvement. The Advisor.

Langone, M. D. (1983). Three modes of counseling: Reevaluation, reentry, family. In R. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 6–11). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Langone, M. D. (1984). Deprogramming: An analysis of parental questionnaires. Cultic Studies Journal, 1(1), 63–78.

Langone, M. D. (1985). Cult involvement: Suggestions for concerned parents and professionals. Cultic Studies Journal, 2(1), 148–168.

Langone, M. D. (1990). Working with cult-affected families. Psychiatric Annals, 20(4), 194–198.

Langone, M. D. (1991). Assessment and treatment of cult victims and their families. In P. A. Keller & S. R. Heyman (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 10, pp. 261–274). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.

Langone, M. D. (1993). Helping cult victims: Historical background. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 22–50). New York, NY: Norton.

Langone, M. D. (Ed.). (1993). Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse. New York, NY: Norton.

Langone, M. D. (1996, July). Clinical update on cults. Psychiatric Update. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/clinical-update-on-cults-langone

Langone, M. D. (2003). Inner experience and conversion. Cultic Studies Review, 2(2), 169–176.

Langone, M. D. (2005). Cult awareness groups and NRM scholars: Toward depolarization of key issues. Cultic Studies Review, 4(2), 146–168.

Langone, M. D. (2005). Psychological abuse: Theoretical and measurement issues. ICSA e-Newsletter, 5(1).

Langone, M. D. (2006). Responding to jihadism: A cultic studies perspective. Cultic Studies Review, 5(2), 268–306.

Langone, M. D. (2015). The definitional ambiguity of cult and ICSA’s mission. ICSA Today, 6(3), 6–7.

Langone, M. D. (2016). Groucho Marx and cult recovery. ICSA Today, 7(2), 2–5.

Langone, M. D. (2016). Origins and prevention of abuse in religious groups. ICSA Today, 7(3), 11–13.

Langone, M. D., & Blood, L. O. (1990). Satanism and occult-related violence: What you should know. Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Langone, M. D., & Eisenberg, G. (1993). Children and cults. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 327–342). New York, NY: Norton.

Langone, M. D., & Martin, P. R. (1993). Deprogramming, exit counseling, and ethics: Clarifying the confusion. The Cult Observer, 10(4), 46–47.

Langone, M. D., & Nieburg, H. A. (1992). Treatment of satanism. In L. VanderCreek (Ed.), Innovation in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 11, pp. 187–201). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.

Lennon, J. P., Szimhart, J., Goldberg, W., & Shaw D. (2015). Mental-health issues in cult-related interventions. ICSA Today, 6(2), 2–7.

Levine, S. (1984). Radical departures: Desperate detours to growing up. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.

Levine, S. V., & Salter, N. E. (1976). Youth and contemporary religious movements: Psychosocial findings. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 21, 411–420.

Lieberman, M. (1987). Effects of large group awareness training on participants’ psychiatric status. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(4), 460–464.

Lifton, R. J. (1961). Thought reform and the psychology of totalism. New York, NY: Norton.

Lifton, R. J. (1986). The Nazi doctors: Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York, NY: Basic Books (Harper Collins).

Lifton, R. J. (1987). The future of immortality and other essays for a nuclear age. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Lifton, R. J. (1991). Cult formation. Cultic Studies Journal, 8(1), 1–6.

Lifton, R. J. (1999). Destroying the world to save it. New York, NY: Henry Holt.

Lomb, L. (2008). The work of the German Südwest Network. ICSA e-Newsletter, 7(1).

Lottick, E. A. (2008). Psychologist survey regarding cults, Cultic Studies Review, 7(1), 1–19. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/psychologists-survey-lottick

Lucas, C. (2003). Spiritual harm in new religions: Reflections on interviews with former members of NRMs. Cultic Studies Review, 2(1), 30–37.

Lutz, A., & Borgman, D. (2002). Teenage spirituality and the Internet. Cultic Studies Review, 1(2), 137–150.

MacDonald, J. P. (1988). “Reject the wicked man”—Coercive persuasion and deviance production: A study of conflict management. Cultic Studies Journal, 5(1), 59–121.

Maier, G. J. (1996). Understanding the dynamics of abusive relationships. Psychiatric Times, 13(9). Available online at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/articles/understanding-dynamics-abusive-relationships

Manca, T. (2015). Growing up with strictly religious parents: A narrative analysis of second generation memoirs. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 6, 16–33.

Markowitz, A. (1989, Fall). A cult hotline and clinic. Journal of Jewish Communal Services, 51–64.

Markowitz, A. (1993). Guidelines for families. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 285–299). New York, NY: Norton.

Markowitz, A., & Halperin, D. (1984). Cults and children: The abuse of the young. Cultic Studies Journal, 1984(1), 143–154.

Maron, N., & Braverman, J. (1988). Family environment as a factor in vulnerability to cult involvement, Cultic Studies Journal, 5(1), 23–43.

Marshall, R. (2010). The influence continuum—The good, the dubious and the harmful—Evidence and implications for policy and practice in the 21st century, International Journal of Cultic Studies, 1(1), 1–12.

Martin, P. R. (1989). Dispelling the myths: The psychological consequences of cultic involvement, Christian Research Journal, 11, 9–14.

Martin, P. (1993a). Cult proofing your kids. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishers.

Martin, P. (1993b). Post-cult recovery: Assessment and rehabilitation. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 203–231). New York, NY: Norton.

Martin, P., Langone, M., Dole, A., & Wiltrout, J. (1992). Post-cult symptoms as measured by the MCMI before and after residential treatment. Cultic Studies Journal, 9(2), 219–250.

Martin, P., & West, L. (1994). Pseudo-identity and the treatment of personality change in victims of captivity and cults. In S. Lynn & J. Rhue (Eds.), Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives (pp. 268–288). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Matthews, C. H., & Salazar, C. F. (2014). Second-generation adult former cult group members’ recovery experiences: Implications for counseling. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 36(2), 188–203.

McCabe, K., Goldberg, L., Langone, M., DeVoe, K. (2007). A workshop for people born or raised in cultic groups. ICSA e-Newsletter, 6(1).

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Millar, P. (2012). Pressure to behave, believe, and become: Identity negotiation stories from people who grew up "cult." (PhD dissertation.) Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA (3498623).

Millar, P., & Caparesi, C. (2017). Conflict resolution for families in distress. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 2, pp. 19-44). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Morse, J., & Morse, E. (1987). Toward a theory of therapy with cultic victims. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 41(4), 563–570.

Moyers, J. (1990). Religious issues in the psychotherapy of former fundamentalists. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27(1), 42–45.

Neufeld, K. (2003). Writing down the pain: A case study of the benefits of writing for cult survivors. Cultic Studies Review, 2(3), 230–245.

Ofshe, R., & Singer, M. T. (1986). Attacks on peripheral versus central elements of self and the impact of thought reforming techniques. Cultic Studies Journal, 3(1), 3–24.

Oksana, C. (1994). Safe passage to healing: A guide for survivors of ritual abuse. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.

Orlowski, B. M. (2010). Spiritual abuse recovery: Dynamic research on finding a place of wholeness. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock.

Palmer, S. J., & Hardman, C. H. (Eds.). (1999). New religions and children. London, UK: Rutgers University Press.

Pardon, R., & Pardon, J. (2017). Residential treatment modality for cult trauma survivors. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 17, pp. 339-366). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Parr, A. R., & Wilson, C. (1998). Leaving the Cooneyites: Analysis of the leaving process for long-term members of a sect, Australian Religion Studies Review, 11(1), 17–12. Available from http://openjournals.library.usyd.edu.au/index.php/ARSR/article/viewFile/8435/8561

Patrick, T., & Dulack, T. (1976). Let our children go! New York, NY: E. P. Dutton.

Perlado, M. (2003). Clinical and diagnostic issues of cultism: Group dependence disorder. Cultic Studies Review, 2(2), 90-98 (see https://drive.google.com/file/d/
0B4dmoPK1tYNjTFNmTHJpQzN4UkE/edit). Available online at http://www.icsahome.com/articles/clinical-and-diagnostic-issues-of-cultism-group-dependence-disorder or

Perlado, M. (2004). Second thoughts on cultic involvement and addictive relationships. Cultic Studies Review, 3(3), 171–182.

Perry, B., & Szalavitz, M. (2006). The Boy who was raised as a dog. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Perry, B., & Szalavitz, M. (2007). Stairway to heaven: Treating children in the crosshairs of trauma. ICSA E-Newsletter, 6(3).

Persinger, M., Carrey, N., & Suess, L. (1980). TM and cult mania. North Qunicy, MA: Christopher Publishing House.

Pfeiffer, C. (1983). The Norfolk Enrichment Center. In R. E. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 41–47). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Pressley, K. (2011). From the fire to a blessing field: Transitioning from an unhealthy relationship to a life of creativity. ICSA Today, 2(2), 18–21.

Pressley, K. (2012). Coming to terms with your story: Writing to heal workbook. Marietta, GA: KAP Communications.

Prevalence (collection of articles). (no date). http://icsahome.com/infoserv_respond/by_topics.asp?topic=tp_prevalence

Richardson, J. T. (1985). Psychological and psychiatric studies of new religions. In L. B. Brown (Ed.), Advances in the Psychology of Religion, Vol. II (International Series in Experimental Social Psychology) (pp. 209–223). New York, NY: Pergamon Press.

Richardson, J. (1995). Clinical and personality assessment of participants in new religions. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 5(3), 145–170.

Robinson, B., Frye, E. M., & Bradley, L. J. (1997). Cult affiliation and disaffiliation: Implications for counseling. Counseling & Values, 41(2), p 166–173.

Rochford, E. B. (1998). Child abuse in the Hare Krishna movement: 1971–1986, ISKCON Communications Journal, 6(1), pp. 41–69. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/child-abuse-in-the-hare-krishna-movement-rochford

Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á., Almendros, C., Escartín, J., Porrúa, C., Martín-Pena, J., Javaloy F., & Carrobles, J. A. (2013). Preliminary taxonomy of psychological abuse strategies: Within partner relationships, at the workplace, and in manipulative groups, International Journal of Cultic Studies, 4, 1–14.

Rosedale, H. R., & Langone, M. D. (2015). On using the term cult. ICSA Today, 6(3), 4–6.

Rosen, S. (2014). Cults: A natural disaster—Looking at cult involvement through a trauma lens. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 5, 12–29.

Rosen, S. (2017). Cults: A natural disaster—Looking at cult involvement through a trauma lens. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 4, pp. 69-94). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Ross, J. C., & Langone, M. D. (1988). Cults: What parents should know. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group.

Ross, R. (2014). Cults inside out: How people can get in and get out. North Charleston, SC: Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.

Rudin, M. (1984). Women, elderly, and children in religious cults, Cultic Studies Journal, 1(1), 8–26. Available from http://www.icsahome.com/articles/women-elderly--children-in-religious-cults-m-rudin-csj-1-1-1984

Sakheim, D. K., & Devine, S. E. (1992). Out of darkness: Exploring satanism and ritual abuse. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Scharff, G. M., & Zeitlin, H. (1983). An approach to non-coercive exit counseling. In R. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 1–5). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Schecter, R. E. (1983). Counseling cultists and their families. Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Scheflin, A. W. (2015). Supporting human rights by testifying against human wrongs, International Journal of Cultic Studies, 6, 69–82.

Scheflin, A., & Opton, E. M. (1978). The mind manipulators. New York, NY: Paddington Press.

Schein, E., Schneier, I., & Barker, C. H. (1961). Coercive persuasion. New York, NY: Norton.

Schwartz, L. (1986). Parental responses to their children’s cult membership. Cultic Studies Journal, 3(2), 190–203.

Shaw, D. (2003). Traumatic abuse in cults: A psychoanalytic perspective. Cultic Studies Review, 2(2), 101–129.

Shaw, D. (2014). Traumatic narcissism: Relational systems of subjugation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Shaw, D. (2014). Finding and losing my religion. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 5, 52–56.

Shaw, D. (2014). The relational system of the traumatizing narcissist. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 5, 4–11.

Shaw, D. (2017). The relational system of the traumatizing narcissist. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 18, pp. 395-414). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Shields, L. E., & Carter, F. J. (2001). Healing from experiences with unhealthy spiritual groups and cults: Treatment using myths and folk tales. Cultic Studies Journal, 18, 109–139.

Shupe, A. D., & Bromley, D. G. (1980). The new vigilantes: Deprogrammers, anti-cultists and the new religions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Siegel, D., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York, NY: Penguin.

Singer, Margaret T. (1978). Therapy with ex-cult members. Journal of the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals, 9, 13–18.

Singer, M. T. (1979, January). Coming out of the cults. Psychology Today, 72–81.

Singer, M. T. (1986). Consultation with families of cultists. In L. I. Wynn, S. H. McDavid, & T. T. Weber (Eds.), The family therapist as systems consultant (pp. 270–283). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Singer, M. T. (1987). Group psychodynamics. In R. Berkow (Ed.), The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy (15th edition) (pp. 1467–1471). Rahway, NJ: Merck.

Singer, M. T. (1996). Therapy, thought reform, and cults. Transactional Analysis Journal, 26(1), 15–22.

Singer, M. T. (1992). Cults. In S. B. Friedman, M. Fisher, & S. K. Schonberg (Eds.), Comprehensive adolescent health care (pp. 699–703). St. Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing.

Singer, M. T. (1992). Undue influence and written documents: Psychological aspects. Journal of Questioned Document Examination, 1, 4–13. [Reprinted in Cultic Studies Review, 10(2), 1993, 19–32.]

Singer, M. T. (1995) Cults: Implications for family therapists. In R. H. Mikesell, D. D. Lusterman et al. (Eds.), Integrating family therapy: Handbook of family psychology and systems theory (pp. 519–527). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Singer, M. T. (2003). Cults in our midst: The continuing fight against their hidden menace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Singer, M. T., Temerlin, M. K., & Langone, M. D. (1990). Psychotherapy cults. Cultic Studies Journal, 7(2), 101–125.

Singer, M. T., & Lalich, J. (1996). Crazy therapies. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Singer, M. T., & Ofshe, R. (1990). Thought reform programs and the production of psychiatric casualties. Psychiatric Annals, 20(4), 188–193.

Sirkin, Mark. (1990). Cult involvement: A systems approach to assessment and treatment. Psychotherapy, 27, 116–123.

Sirkin, M., & Rueveni, U. (1992). The role of network therapy in the treatment of relational disorders: Cults and folie a deux. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 14(3), 211224.

Sirkin, Mark I., & Wynne, Lyman C. (1990). Cult involvement as relational disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 20, 204–218.

Siskind, A. (1999). In whose interest? Separating children from mothers in the Sullivan Institute/Fourth Wall community, in S. J. Palmer & C. H. Hardman (Eds.), New Religions and Children (pp. 51–68). London, UK: Rutgers University Press.

Siskind, A. (2001). Child-rearing issues in totalist groups, in B. Zablocki & T. Robbins (Eds.), Misunderstanding cults: Searching for objectivity in a controversial field (pp. 415–451). London, UK: University of Toronto Press.

Siskind, A. (2003). The Sullivan Institute/Fourth Wall community: The relationship of radical individualism and authoritarianism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Solomon, A. (1988). Psychotherapy of a casualty from a mass therapy encounter group: A case study. Cultic Studies Journal, 5(2), 211–227.

Spero, M.H. (1982). Psychotherapeutic procedure with religious cult devotees. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 332–344.

Spero, M. H. (1983). Individual psychodynamic intervention with the cult devotee: Diagnostic and treatment procedures with a dysautonomous religious personality. In D. Halperin (Ed.), Psychodynamic perspectives on religion, sect, and cult (pp. 295–316). Boston, MA: John Wright PSG.

Storr, A. (1997). Feet of clay: Saints, sinners, and madmen. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Stout, M. (2005). The sociopath next door. New York, NY: Broadway Books.

Sullivan, L. B. (1984). Counseling and involvement in new religious groups. Cultic Studies Journal 1(2), 178–195.

Sundberg, N. D., Latkin, C. A., Littman, R. A., & Hagan, R. A. (1990). Personality in a religious commune: CPIs in Rajneeshpuram, Journal of Personality Assessment,
55
(1 & 2), 7–17.

Swartling, G., & Swartling, P. (1992). Psychiatric problems in ex-members of word of life. Cultic Studies Journal, 9(1), 78–88.

Szalavitz, M. (2006). Help at any cost: How the troubled-teen industry cons parents and hurts kids. New York, NY: Penguin Group.

Szimhart, J. (2010). A recovery-from-addictions model applied to cult interventions. ICSA Today, 1(1), 10–13.

Temerlin, M., & Temerlin, J. (1982). Psychotherapy cults: An iatrogenic perversion. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19(2), 131–141.

Temerlin, J. W., & Temerlin, M. K. (1986). Some hazards of the therapeutic relationship. Cultic Studies Journal, 3(2), 234–242.

Tobias, M. (1993). Guidelines for ex-members. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 300–326). New York, NY: Norton.

Tobias, M. (2017). Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for former members of high-demand groups. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 8, pp. 171-190). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Tobias, M., & Lalich, J. (1994). Captive hearts, captive minds: Freedom from cults and abusive relationships. Almaeda, CA: Hunter House.

Tourish, D., & Wohlforth, T. (2000). On the edge: Political cults right and left. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Tucker, Rob. (1993). Teen satanism. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 356–381). New York, NY: Norton.

Tylden, E. (1995). Psychological casualties, in J. Watt (Ed.), The church, medicine and the New Age (pp. 61–83). London, UK: Churches’ Council for Health and Healing.

Unbound staff. (1983). “Unbound”: Iowa rehabilitation center. In R. E. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 35–40). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Van der Kolk, B., McFarlane, A. C., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.). (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body & society. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

van Eck Duymaer van Twist. (2007). Growing up in contemporary sectarian movements: An analysis of segregated socialization. (Unpublished doctoral thesis, The London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, England.)

Venter, M. A. (1999). Guidelines for the design of a therapeutic programme for ex-members of destructive cults. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, University Microfilms International, 59(11-A), p. 4072.

Walsh, Y. (2001). Deconstructing “brainwashing” within cults as an aid to counselling psychologists. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 14(2), 119–128.

Wehle, D. (Ed.). (2010). The last draw—Cults and creativity. Cultic Studies Review, 9(1). [Special issue containing nine articles.]

Ward, D. (2000). Domestic violence as a cultic system. Cultic Studies Journal, 17, 42–55.

Ward, D. (2011). The lived experience of spiritual abuse. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14(9), 899–915.

Weishaupt, K. J., & Stensland, M. D. (1997). Wifely subjection: Mental health issues in Jehovah’s Witness women. Cultic Studies Journal, 14(1), 106–144.

West, L. J. (1989) Persuasive techniques in contemporary cults: A public health approach. In M. Galanter (Ed.), Cults and new religious movements (pp. 165–192). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

West, L. J. (1993). Evaluating problems of cult involvement, Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

West, L. J., & Martin, P. (1994). Pseudo-identity and the treatment of personality change in victims of captivity and cults. Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

West, L. J., & Martin, P. (1996). Pseudo-identity and the treatment of personality change in victims of captivity and cults. Cultic Studies Journal, 13(2), 125–152.

West, L. J., & Singer, M. T. (1980). Cults, quacks, and nonprofessional psychotherapies. In H. I. Kaplan, A. M. Freedman, & B. J. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry/III (pp. 3245–3258). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Wexler, M. N. (1995). Expanding the groupthink study of explanation to the study of contemporary cults, Cultic Studies Journal, 12(1), 49–71.

Whitsett, D. (1992). A self psychological approach to the cult phenomenon. Clinical Journal of Social Work, 20(4), 363–375.

Whitsett, D. (2006). The psychobiology of trauma and child maltreatment. Cultic Studies Review, 5(3), 351–373.

Whitsett, D. (2014). Why cults are harmful: Neurobiological speculations. ICSA Today, 5(1), 2–5.

Whitsett, D. (2017). A modern psychodynamic approach with first-generation former cult members. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter 9, pp. 191-214). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Whitsett, D., & Kent, S. (2003). Cults and families. Families in Society, 84(4), 491–502.

Wood, A. T. (1983). Three elements of cult counseling. In R. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families (pp. 27–34). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Wooden, K. (1981). The children of Jonestown. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Paperbacks.

Wright, S. A. (1987). Leaving cults: The dynamics of defection. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion Monograph Series, Number 7.

Yeakley, F. R., Jr. (Ed.). (1988). The discipling dilemma. Nashville, TN: Gospel Advocate Co.

Zablocki, B. D. (1998). Exit cost analysis: A new approach to the scientific study of brainwashing. Nova Religio, 1(2), 216–249.

Zablocki, B., & Robbins, T. (2001). Misunderstanding cults: Searching for objectivity in a controversial field. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.

Zeitlin, H. (1985). Cult induction: Hypnotic communication patterns in contemporary cults. In J. Zeig, (Ed.), Ericksonian psychotherapy (pp. 379–400). New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1997). What messages are behind today's cults?, American Psychological Association Monitor, 28(5), 14.

Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding how good people turn evil. New York, NY: Random House.

 

Kristine Langone, BSW, California State University, Fresno, is a Christian former cult member, which led to her interest in helping former cult members. In college she studied different clinical frameworks for helping former members. She has a Bachelor’s in Social Work from Fresno, California State University. Currently she resides in Colorado with her husband and two children.